Tobacco and smoking has a long and checkered history dating. The tobacco plant is believed to be widely spread in America since the 1st Century. Pictorial records of smoking date back to the 11th century. Below is a synopsis of the history of smoking. cigarettes, cigars and tobacco.
1492:- Columbus Discovers Tobacco; “Certain Dried Leaves” Are Received as Gifts, and Thrown Away
1518:- Juan De Grijalva lands in Yucatan, observes cigarette smoking by natives
1527:- Tobacco recorded as addictive by Bartolomé de Las Casas.
1531:- Santo Domingo: European cultivation of tobacco begins.
1556-1558:- Tobacco introduced to France, Spain and Portugal.
1564-1565:- Tobacco introduced to England
1600:- Sir Walter Raleigh persuades Queen Elizabeth to try smoking.
1614:- First sale of native Virginia tobacco in England; Virginia colony enters world tobacco market, under English protection
1683:- Massachusetts passes the nation’s first no-smoking law. It forbids the smoking of tobacco outdoors, because of the fire danger. Soon after, Philadelphia lawmakers approve a ban on “smoking seegars on the street.” Fines are used to buy fire-fighting equipment.
1762:- General Israel Putnam introduces cigar-smoking to the US.
1770:- Demuth Tobacco shop, the oldest tobacco shop in the nation is established by Christopher Demuth at 114 E. King St., Lancaster, PA
1794:- The U.S. Congress passes the first federal excise tax on tobacco products.
1805-1807:- CERIOLI isolates nicotine, the “essential oil” or “essence of tobacco”
1809:- Louis Nicolas Vanquelin isolates nicotine from tobacco smoke.
1827:- First friction match invented. Chemist John Walker calls his invention “Congreves,” after the rocket maker. Later they became known as “lucifers”, then “matches
1830:- First organized anti-tobacco movement in US begins as adjunct to the temperance movement
1832:- The cigarette is invented by an Egyptian artilleryman during the siege of Acre. the Egyptian’s cannon crew had improved their rate of fire by rolling the gunpowder in paper tubes. For this, he and his crew were rewarded with a pound of tobacco.Their only pipe was broken, so they took to rolling the pipe tobacco in the paper tubes.
1852:- The first matches are introduced, making smoking more convenient
1860:- Manufactured cigarettes first appear in the United States. A popular early brand, Bull Durham, commanded 90% of the market.
1861-1865:- Tobacco is given with rations to Union and Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, and many Northerners are introduced to tobacco this way. During Sherman’s march, Union soldiers raided warehouses in search of the mild, sweet “bright” tobacco of the South. Bright tobacco becomes the rage in the North and eventually replaces the heavier Turkish tobacco in cigarettes.
1864:- First American cigarette factory opens and produces almost 20 million cigarettes annually.
1875:- Allen & Ginter cigarette brands, Richmond Straight Cut No. 1 and Pet, begin using picture cards to stiffen the pack and protect the cigarettes. The cards, with photos of actresses, baseball players, Indian Chiefs, and boxers are enormously successful and represent the first modern promotion scheme for a manufactured product.
1880:- Mssrs. Richard Benson and William Hedges open a tobacconist shop near Philip Morris in London.
1886:- JB Duke targets women with “Cameo” brand.
1898:- Tennessee Supreme Court upholds a total ban on cigarettes, ruling they are “not legitimate articles of commerce, being wholly noxious and deleterious to health. Their use is always harmful.”
1900:- Washington, Iowa, Tennessee and North Dakota outlaw the sale of cigarettes.
1901:- Strong anti-cigarette activity now exists in 43 of the 45 states.
1901:- 3.5 billion cigarettes and 6 billion cigars are sold. Four in five American men smoke at least one cigar a day.
1902:- Tiny Philip Morris sets up a corporation in New York to sell its British brands, including Philip Morris, producer of Marlboro cigarettes, Blues, Cambridge, Derby, and a cigarette named after Marlborough Street, where its London factory is located. Marlboro is one of the earliest woman’s cigarette, featuring a red tip to hide lipstick marks. It does not catch on with the public.
1909:- Baseball great Honus Wagner orders American Tobacco Company take his picture off their Sweet Caporal cigarette packs, fearing it will lead children to smoke. The resulting shortage makes the Honus Wagner card the most valuable baseball card of all time, currently worth close to $500,000.
1910:- Most popular brands: Pall Mall, Sweet Caporals, Piedmont, Helmar and Fatima.
1913:- RJ Reynolds introduces Camel, considered by historians as the first ‘modern’ cigarette.
1917:- There are now 3 national brands of cigarettes on the US market: Lucky Strike cigarettes , Camel and Chesterfield cigarettes.
1921:- RJ Reynolds spends $8 million in advertising, mostly on Camel. Inaugurates the highly successful “I’d Walk a Mile for a Camel” slogan.
1923:- Camel captures 45% of the US market.
1924:- Philip Morris re-introduces Marlboro with the slogan “Mild as May,” targeting “decent, respectable” women. “Has smoking any more to do with a woman’s morals than has the color of her hair?” the advertisement reads. “Marlboros now ride in so many limousines, attend so many bridge parties, and repose in so many handbags.”
1927:- A sensation is created when George Washington Hill blatantly aims Lucky Strike advertising campaign at women, urging them to “reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet.” Smoking initiation rates among adolescent females triple between 1925-1935, and Lucky Strike captures 38% of the American market.
1930:- Most popular brands: Lucky Strike, Camel, Chesterfield, Old Gold and Raleigh.
1933:- The Journal of the American Medical Association publishes its first cigarette ad, a practice that would continue for 20 years.
1936:- Brown and Williamson introduces Viceroy, the first national brand to feature a filter of cellulose acetate. Advertising increases the use of physicians to counter the claims that cigarettes are a major health problem.
1940:- Most popular brands: Camel, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield, Raleigh and Old Gold.
1940:- Adult Americans smoke 2,558 cigarettes per capita a year, nearly twice the consumption of 1930
1942:- Brown and Williamson claims that Kools keep the head clear and give extra protection against colds. Lucky Strike, Chesterfield, and Camels all promote the health benefits of their cigarettes, including the prominent display of physicians. This practice continues into the 1950s, when it is abandoned in favor of silence on health issues.
1950:- Most popular brands: Camel, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield, Commander and Old Gold.
1952:- Kent introduces the ‘Micronite’ filter, which Lorillard claims “offers the greatest health protection in cigarette history.” It turns out to be made of asbestos. Kent discontinues use of the Micronite filter four years later.
1954:- RJ Reynolds:- introduces:- Winston:- filter cigarettes, but promotes the taste benefit, not health. Winston dominates the US market for the next 15 years.
1954:- Marlboro advertising taken over by the Chicago ad agency Leo Burnett. “Delivers the Goods on Flavor” ran the new slogan in newspaper ads. Design of the campaign, which features ‘Marlboro Men,’ is credited to John Landry of Philip Morris. Prior to initiating this campaign, Marlboro had <1% of the US market.
1963:- Marlboro:- dispenses with tattooed sailors and athletes as the Marlboro Man and settles on the exclusive use of cowboys. For several years, Philip Morris research had shown that sales increased whenever they cowboys appeared in their campaigns.
1964:- Marlboro Country ad campaign is launched. “Come to where the flavor is. Come to Marlboro Country.” Marlboro sales begin growing at 10% a year.
1968:- Philip Morris introduces Virginia Slims with the slogan, “You’ve come a long way, baby.” Five yeas later, Billy Jean King, wearing Virginia Slims colors, defeats Bobby Riggs in the televised ‘Battle of the Sexes.’ Virginia Slims continues to promote tennis matches to this day.
1970:- Most popular brands: Winston, Pall Mall, Marlboro, Salem and Kool.
1971:- TV cigarette advertising banned. The ban was scheduled to begin on January 1, but was delayed for one day to allow a final glut of Super Bowl ads. Fairness Doctrine anti-smoking ads also disappear. Cigarette sales begin rebounding from their four year decline. RJ Reynolds’ top-selling Winston brand, which had been challenged by Philip Morris’ Marlboro for most of the 60s, is particularly hard-hit. While the Marlboro cowboy translates into print advertising beautifully, Winston’s only identifier was the jingle, “Winston tastes good, like a cigarette should.” Winston focuses on promoting car racing, but steadily loses market share to Marlboro.
1972:- Marlboro becomes the best-selling cigarette in the world. It remains so today by a wide margin.
1980:- Most popular brands: Marlboro, Winston, Kool, Salem, and Pall Mall.
1987:- Joe Camel’s USA Debut. A North Carolina advertising agency uses Joe Camel to celebrate “Old Joe’s” 75th anniversary. Four years later, the Journal of the American Medical Association publishes two reports on Joe Camel and kids. One study finds that 91% of 6 year olds recognize Joe Camel, similar to the percent who recognize Mickey Mouse. The other study finds that since the inception of the Joe Camel campaign in 1987, Camel’s share of the under-18 (illegal) market has risen from 0.5% to 32.8%, worth >$400 million per year.
1988:- After a 15 year decline, the incidence of teenage smoking increases.
1989:- During the 93-minute broadcast of the Marlboro Grand Prix, the Marlboro name appeared on the television screen 5,933 times for a total of 46 minutes. Sponsorship of televised sporting events becomes the principal means by which cigarette companies subvert the 1971 ban on TV advertising.
1990:- Most popular brands: Marlboro, Winston, Salem, Kool and Newport. However, Marlboro actually outsells Winston by a 3 to 1 margin.
1990:- The US realizes a $4.2 billion trade surplus from tobacco products. Despite 2.5 million deaths worldwide due to smoking, Vice President Quayle remarks, “We ought to think about opening up markets.”
1992:- Dying of lung cancer, ‘Marlboro Man’ Wayne McLaren appears at Philip Morris’ annual shareholders meeting in Richmond, Virginia, and asks the company to voluntarily limit its advertising. Chairman Michael Miles responds, “We’re certainly sorry to hear about your medical problem. Without knowing your medical history, I don’t think I can comment any further.” The Marlboro Man died of lung cancer three months later.
1993:- Cigarette promotional expenditures reach $6.03 billion, an increase of 15.4 percent over 1992.
1995:- Marlboro cowboy, David McLean, dies of lung cancer at 73.
1997:- In response to pressure by the Federal Trade Commission, RJ Reynolds abandons the ‘Joe Camel’ ad campaign.
1998:- Camel, Winston and Kool introduce youth-oriented ads, many of which mock the anti-smoking movement.
1999:- About 10 million Americans smoke cigars.
1999:- Britain’s royal family orders the removal of its seal of approval from Gallaher’s Benson and Hedges cigarettes
1999:- Philip Morris acknowledges scientific consensus on smoking. “There is an overwhelming medical and scientific consensus that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema and other serious diseases in smokers”.
2002:- CDC estimates smoking health and productivity costs reach $150 billion a year, according to a new study published in this week’s WMMR. CDC estimated the total cost of smoking at $3,391 a year for every smoker, and even itemized the per-pack health/productivity costs at $7.18/pack. Further, it estimated the smoking-related medical costs at $3.45 per pack, and job productivity lost because of premature death from smoking at $3.73 per pack.